Level of Service/Risk, Need, Responsivity

Don Andrews, Ph.D.
James Bonta, Ph.D.
Stephen Wormith, Ph.D.

Technical Information

The LS/RNR normative sample consisted of 157,947 North American youth and adult offenders — 60,156 American adult and youth offenders from 10 jurisdictions, and 97,791 Canadian community and institionalized adult and youth offenders.
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Profile Reports
Profile Reports provide security classification information based on the overall assessment score.
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About the Author

D. A. Andrews, Ph.D.
Dr. D. A. Andrews is a Professor of Psychology and a member of the Institute of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Carleton University. He received his doctorate degree from Queen's University and is a fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association. His research interests are in the area of criminal justice, corrections and other human services areas. He also has an interest in the social psychology of criminal knowledge. Dr. Andrews is the author of numerous books, monographs, technical reports, and articles. He is co-author of Assessing the Youthful Offender: Issues and Techniques with Dr. Robert Hoge, and co-author of The Psychology of Criminal Conduct and the Level of Service Inventory–Revised with Dr. James Bonta.Back to the top

James L. Bonta, Ph.D.
Dr. Bonta received his doctorate degree in Clinical Psychology from the University of Ottawa in 1979. Prior to graduating he worked with conduct-disordered children and their families, provided assessments of youth for juvenile courts, and acted as a consultant at a training school for youth. Upon graduating, Dr. Bonta became a psychologist at the Ottawa-Carleton Detention Centre, a maximum security remand center for adults and young offenders, and later became Chief Psychologist at the at institution. During his 14 years at the detention centre, he established the only full-time psychology department in a jail setting in Canada.

Dr. Bonta is currently the director of correction research for Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. He is also a member of the Editorial Advisory Boards for the Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice and Behavior and a fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association.

He has had many publications in the areas of risk assessment and offender rehabilitation, such as The Psychology of Criminal Conduct co-authored with D. A. Andrews and The Level of Service Inventory–Revised an offender risk-need classification instrument that has been translated into five languages and is used by correctional systems in many countries.Back to the top

J. Stephen Wormith, Ph.D.
J. Stephen Wormith is Chair of Forensic Psychology in the Psychology Department at the University of Saskatchewan. He is also Adjunct Professor at both Carleton University and the University of Ottawa. Formerly, he was Psychologist-in-Chief for the Ontario Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services and Deputy Superintendent at the Rideau Correctional and Treatment Centre. He has also worked as a correctional psychologist and researcher with the Correctional Service of Canada, in institutions and in the community.

Dr. Wormith's research activities have concentrated on the assessment, treatment, and therapeutic processes of offenders. He provides forensic clinical consultation services to the Regional Psychiatric Centre located in Saskatoon and performs psychological assessments for youth and adult court. He also provides forensic research consultation services to the Saskatchewan Department of Corrections and Public Safety, the Ontario Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services, and the Correctional Services of Canada.
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Don Andrews, Ph.D.,
James Bonta, Ph.D., &
Stephen Wormith, Ph.D.

Age Range 16 years and older

Administration Time 40 minutes–2 hours 

Administration Type Semistructured Interview

Qualification Level B


  • Handscored
  • Software (administration and scoring)