Level of Service Inventory–Revised

Don Andrews, Ph.D.
James Bonta, Ph.D.

Technical Information

Normative Data
The Canadian normative data for the LSI-R consists of 1,414 women (M age = 26.89) and 956 men (M age = 30.2). The men were from Ottawa-Carleton Detention Centre, the Hamilton-Wentworth Detention Centre, and the Toronto Jail. The females were from a medium-security institution for adult women operated by the Ontario Ministry of Correctional Services.

The U.S. normative data for LSI-R consists of 19,481 inmates from seven departments of corrections throughout the U.S. and 4,240 parolees and probationers from seven samples in four U.S. states.  The sample includes 17,622 male inmates (M age = 34.51), 1,859 female inmates (M age = 34.26), 3,523 male community offenders (M age = 34.58), and 717 female community offenders (M age = 34.65)

Validity / Reliability
The LSI-R has strong reliability and validity, which has been demonstrated in the many studies presented in the Technical Manual. The reliability and validity studies include the evaluation of:
  • Inter-rater reliability
  • Test-retest reliability
  • Internal consistency reliability
  • Face validity
  • Construct validity
  • Relative validity
  • Discriminant validity
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Profile Reports
Profile Reports provide security classification information based on the overall assessment.

Comparative Reports
Comparative Reports show progress over time, comparing up to four assessments for the same offender. They are free with the purchase of Profile Reports.

Group Reports
Group Reports summarize classification information for a group of offenders to help you make institutional or program decisions. They are free with the purchase of Profile Reports.Back to the top

About the Authors

Dr. D. A. Andrews
Dr. D. A. Andrews is a professor of psychology and a member of the Institute of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Carleton University. He received his Ph.D. from Queen's University and is a member of the College of Psychologists of Ontario. His research interests are in the area of criminal justice, corrections, and other human service areas. He also has an interest in the social psychology of criminal knowledge. Dr. Andrews is the author of numerous books, monographs, technical reports, and articles. He is co-author of Assessing the Youthful Offender: Issues and Techniques and co-author of The Psychology of Criminal Conduct and Level of Service Inventory–Revised with James Bonta.

Dr. James L. Bonta
Dr. Bonta received his doctorate degree in Clinical Psychology from the University of Ottawa in 1979. Prior to graduating he worked with conduct-disordered children and their families, provided assessments of youth for juvenile courts, and acted as a consultant at a training school for youth. Upon graduating, Dr. Bonta became a psychologist at the Ottawa-Carleton Detention Centre, a maximum security remand center for adults and young offenders, and later became Chief Psychologist at the institution. During his 14 years at the detention centre he established the only full-time psychology department in a jail setting in Canada.

Dr. Bonta is currently the director of correction research for Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. He is also a member of the Editorial Advisory Boards for the Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice and Behavior and a fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association.

He has had many publications in the areas of risk assessment and offender rehabilitation, such as The Psychology of Criminal Conduct co-authored with D. A. Andrews and The Level of Service Inventory–Revised an offender risk-need classification instrument that has been translated into five languages and is used by correctional systems in many countries.
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Don Andrews, Ph.D. & James Bonta, Ph.D.

Age Range 16 years and older

Administration Time 30–45 minutes

Administration Type Structured Interview

Qualification Level B