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Bender®-Gestalt II
Bender® Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, Second Edition

Lauretta Bender, M.D.
The American Orthopsychiatric Association, Inc.

    Technical Information

    The standardization sample for the Bender-Gestalt II was based on a carefully designed, stratified, random sampling plan that closely matched the U.S. 2000 census.  The standardization sample consisted of 4,000 individuals from 4 to 85+ years of age.  Back to the top Reliability and Validity
    Numerous studies support the reliability and validity of the Bender-Gestalt II and its value in clinical assessment.  Reliability studies evaluated the interrater reliability, internal consistency, and test-retest procedures.  Additionally, standard error of measurement and confidence intervals, which are based on reliability estimates, are reviewed in the Examiner’s Manual.

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Author Lauretta Bender, M.D.
& the American Orthopsychiatric Association, Inc.

Age Range 3 and older

Administration Time 5–10 minutes
(14 stimulus cards)
5 minutes
(visual, motor tests)

Administration Type Clinician-administered;
patient reproduces Gestalt figures presented on stimulus cards

Qualification Level C

  • Handscored