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Bender®-Gestalt II
Bender® Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, Second Edition

Lauretta Bender, M.D.
The American Orthopsychiatric Association, Inc.


The Bender-Gestalt II is an update of a classic assessment, the Bender-Gestalt. It continues its tradition as a brief test of visual-motor integration that may provide interpretive information about an individual's development and psychological functioning.

The Bender-Gestalt II assessment is clinician-administered. The patient reproduces Gestalt figures presented on stimulus cards. This assessment is suitable for individuals three and older.

This test uses new recall procedures to assess visual-motor memory and provide a more comprehensive assessment of visual-motor skills. The Bender-Gestalt II includes supplemental tests of simple motor and perceptual ability helps identify specific visual-motor deficits.

This test can also be used to assess neurological damage and emotional disorders.

How to Use the Assessment
The test consists of 14 figures, each on its own 3"x5" card. The patient is shown each figure and asked to copy it onto a piece of blank paper. The test typically takes 5–10 minutes, after which the results are scored based on accuracy and other observations such as physical demeanor, drawing technique, test-taking behavior, and attitude.
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Scales & Forms

  • Visual-Motor Skills
  • Visual-Motor Memory
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Author Lauretta Bender, M.D.
& the American Orthopsychiatric Association, Inc.

Age Range 3 and older

Administration Time 5–10 minutes
(14 stimulus cards)
5 minutes
(visual, motor tests)

Administration Type Clinician-administered;
patient reproduces Gestalt figures presented on stimulus cards

Qualification Level C

  • Handscored