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Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale

Stanley R. Kay, Ph.D.
Lewis A. Opler, M.D., Ph.D.
Abraham Fiszbein, M.D.

Technical Information

Normative data was gathered from a sample of 240 medicated schizophrenics. The major scales were all found to exhibit the characteristic Gaussian (bell-shaped) distribution curves, without significant skewness or kurtosis, which was taken to indicate that the scores are normally distributed in the comparison sample. Complete normative data are provided in the PANSS Manual.

Reliability and Validity
Testing has found the PANSS to be a valid and psychometrically sound assessment of schizophrenia symptoms. The Positive, Negative, and General Psychopathology scales have been found by coefficient alpha, split-half method, and test-retest reliability testing to be internally consistent and highly reliable. The PANSS Positive and Negative symptom ratings are also highly correlated with the Andreason method for evaluation, and the General Psychopathology scale has been found to have a significant association with the NIMH Clinical Global Impression scale.

Psychopharmacological research supports the PANSS’ construct, discriminative, convergent, and predictive validity, as well as its drug sensitivity, when used longitudinally. In addition, the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given the PANSS scale its approval and recommendation. Detailed data on psychometric properties are presented in the PANSS Manual.
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Stanley R. Kay, Ph.D.,
Lewis A. Opler, M.D., Ph.D., &
Abraham Fiszbein, M.D.

Age Range 18 years and older

Administration Time 30 to 40 minutes

Administration Type PANSS: clinican-completed 
SCI-PANSS: interview

Qualification Level B

  • Handscored