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Carroll Depression Scales

Bernard Carroll, M.B., Ph.D.  

Technical Information

The normative sample consisted of 959 inpatients and outpatients who were diagnosed with Major Depression and 248 nonclinical individuals.

The test-retest reliability for the CDS was a mean score of 17.1, SD= 11.5. On the second rating of each pair, the mean CDS score was 16.5, SD = 11.7.

In the 559 depressed patients studied within the Duke Mental Health Clincial Research Centre, the CEDS—D scale total score correlated with the CDS total score at a highly significant level (r = +0.67:p < 0.0001). Back to the top


Profile Reports
Profile Reports present scores graphically and numerically to summarize each CDS–R or Brief CDS administration.

This tool provides:
  • Summary of Response Reports paraphrase each question and response, including information typed by the respondent for those categories that request descriptive information.
  • Concise Reports of Possible Diagnoses list whether or not criteria have been met for a possible diagnosis.
  • Possible Diagnoses and Criteria Reports include additional information based on the DSM-IV™, such as the specific criteria met and the responses as they relate to each diagnosis.
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For more information on the CDS-R click here.Back to the top

About the Author

Bernard Carroll Ph.D., MD.
Bernard Carroll, Ph.D., MD completed his medical and psychiatric training at the University of Melbourne. Dr. Carroll has taught on the faculties of the University of Melbourne, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Michigan, and Duke University.

Dr. Caroll is widely known as a pioneer of the neuroendocrine research strategy for psychiatric disorders and a as a developer of the Carroll-Klein psychobiologic model for mood disorders. Dr.Caroll is a sought after lecturer to psychiatric and primary care audiences on the biology, treatment, and assessment of Depression. Back to the top


Bernard Carroll, M.B., Ph.D.

Age Range 18 and older

Administration Type Individual-completed

Qualification Level B