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Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale

Stanley R. Kay, Ph.D.
Lewis A. Opler, M.D., Ph.D.
Abraham Fiszbein, M.D.


The PANSS is based on findings that schizophrenia comprises at least two distinct syndromes. The positive syndrome consists of productive symptoms, while the negative syndrome consists of deficit features. This distinction is useful when developing treatment plans because you can focus on the type of symptoms the patient is experiencing. It is also useful when studying the effects of medication (e.g., in clinical drug trials) because it allows you to determine which type of symptoms are being affected.

How to Use the Assessment
The PANSS is a handscored instrument. You have the option to use standard Dimensional scoring or the new Pentagonal scoring method. The Pentagonal model is the result of recent research. It uses 25 PANSS items organized into five scales: Negative, Positive, Dysphoric Mood, Activation, and Autistic Preoccupation.

Structured Clinical Interview for PANSS (SCI–PANSS)
To optimize the instrument’s objectivity, the SCI–PANSS was developed to secure reliable information. The SCI–PANSS interview can be used to gather information objectively prior to completing the PANSS assessment.

Informant Questionnaire (IQ–PANSS)
The IQ–PANSS evaluates phenomenological presentation. Through item definitions, statements, and questions, the questionnaire ensures that all information related to behavioral presence, frequency, and responsiveness is obtained during interviews with family members, healthcare providers, or other informants.
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Scales & Forms

  • Positive Scale
  • Negative Scale
  • Composite Index
  • General Psychopathology Scale
  • Supplemental Aggression Risk Profile
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Stanley R. Kay, Ph.D.,
Lewis A. Opler, M.D., Ph.D., &
Abraham Fiszbein, M.D.

Age Range 18 years and older

Administration Time 30 to 40 minutes

Administration Type PANSS: clinican-completed 
SCI-PANSS: interview

Qualification Level B

  • Handscored