The Attentional Interpersonal Style Inventory (TAIS)

Robert M. Nideffer, Ph.D.

Technical Information

With normative samples totaling over 8,700 respondents, the TAIS is supported by more than 25 years of research and application. Its reliability studies include evaluation of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Because of its expansive normative database, over a dozen comparative groups are available for use, including adolescents, business executives, engineers and amateur athletes.

Collecting normative data is an important part of test development. Norms establish a baseline against which all subsequent results are compared, and they enable the test developer to capture the characteristics of an “average” respondent. Norms indicate the average performance on a test and the frequency of deviation above and below the average. The larger and more representative the normative database, the more accurate and indicative the results.

Technical Manual

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The TAIS has a set of eight reports. When you purchase the set, you can generate one of each of the eight available reports.

Business Report
This report option presents an overall scale profile of the individual in a graph format and breaks up the percentile scores by scale. They also provide a narrative section with tips for improvement and teambuilding strategies.
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Sales Report
This report option evaluates how an individual would perform in a sales role. Based on scores, these reports identify possible strengths and weaknesses.
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Scale Report
This report option presents the percentile scores in a numerical and graph format.
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Basic Scale Report
This report option presents the percentile scores in numerical and graph format. These reports also provide the respondent's score on each individual scale.
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Business Leader Report
This report option compares the respondent's scores to those of successful business leaders.
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Management Development Report
This report option is designed to identify the particular performance errors an individual is most likely to make when placed in a high-pressure situation.
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Interaction Report
This report option compares two individuals' scores on a series of interpersonal and concentration skills, and provides a narrative on how the two are likely to interact with one another in a work situation.
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Athlete's Mental Edge (AME) Sport Report
This report option provides a description of the different situations in which an individual would be expected to perform at a high level, as well as identify situations where problems are likely to occur.
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Research Library

The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Pilots’ Level of Attention: Comparing the TAIS and the EQ-i
Research in various fields of study has demonstrated conceptual, theoretical, and practical links between emotions and performance. However, limited research can be found on the impact of emotions on the performance of pilots specifically. Of particular interest has been the lack of research investigating the effects of emotions on cognitive attention. The results from the current study showed that increased levels of Total emotional intelligence, Emotional Self-Awareness, Stress Tolerance, and Flexibility were associated with higher levels of awareness, analytical/conceptual functioning, and attentional flexibility, as well as lower levels of external and internal distractibility. Back to the top


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About the Author

Dr. Robert Nideffer
The author of sixteen books, Dr. Nideffer is the developer of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS). As a researcher and practitioner, he has spent the past 35 years exploring the relationship between individuals’ concentration skills, their level of emotional arousal, and their ability to perform in high-pressure situations. His writings and theory have had a profound impact on the field of Sport Psychology and on the way high performance athletes around the world prepare for competition. Descriptions of his research and work with high level performers have appeared in Business Week, Dun's Review, Fast Company, New York Times, National Observer, Sports Illustrated, Psychology Today, and many other national and international publications. Back to the top

Quick Facts

13 and older


Administration Time:
20 minutes

Qualification Level:


Related Product: EQ-i® A good tool to use in combination with the TAIS is the EQ-i Emotional Intelligence assessment...